Judo, a modern martial art, combat and Olympic sport developed in Japan in 1882 by Japanese polymath and educator Jigoro Kano. The central idea behind Kano’s vision was maximum efficiency, minimum effort with mutual welfare and benefit.
There are three basic techniques in judo: nage-waza, katame-waza and atemi-waza. Nage waza include all techniques in which tori attempts to throw or trip uke, usually with the aim of placing uke on his back.
Each technique has three distinct stages: Kuzushi(the initial balance break),Tsukuri (the act of turning in and fitting into the throw and Kake(the execution and completion of the throw). Nage waza is further categorized into tachi-waza(the standing technique) which includes throws that are performed holding an upright position and sutemi-waza ( sacrifice techniques) in which tori sacrifices his upright position in order to throw uke.
Katame-waza is categorised into osaekomi-waza (holding techniques) in which tori traps and pins uke on his back on the floor; shime-waza (strangulation techniques) in which tori attempts to force a submission by choking or strangling uke and kansetsu-waza (joint techniques) in which tori attempts to submit uke by painful manipulation of his joints. Atemi-waza are techniques in which tori disables uke with a strike to a vital point.
The traditional rules of judo are intended to provide a basis under which to test skill in judo, while avoiding significant risk of injury to the competitors. International contest rule includes penalties for passivity or preventing progress in the match and for safety infringements. Ippon is scored in ne-waza for pinning an opponent on his back with a recognised osaekomi-waza for 20 seconds or by forcing a submission through shime-waza or kansetsu-waza. A submission is signalled by tapping the mat or the opponent at least twice with the hand or foot, or by saying maitta (I surrender). A pin lasting for less than 20 seconds, but more than 15 seconds scores waza-ari and one lasting less than 15 seconds but more than 10 seconds scores a yuko.
Judo was introduced as an OIympic sport for men in the1964 Games in Tokyo. The women’s event was introduced at the Olympics in 1988 as a demonstration event, and an official medal event in 1992. Dutchman Anton Geesink won the first Olympic gold medal in the open division of judo by defeating Akio Kaminaga of Japan